The universe is formed from proto-quantum field(s) (PQFs). The initiating event is the formation of a thermal gradient which establishes synchronous oscillations which describes time. Time is not quantised. Concomitantly PQFs, either directly or indirectly, differentiate into the all the quantum fields required for the standard model of particles and forces, and three dimensional space. The transition of PQFs to functional quantum fields is a continuous process at the boundary of a spherical universe, a “ring of fire”, necessary to maintain time.